The water price cost upside down restricts the table industry industry needs normalized subsidy mechanism

[China Instrument Network Instrument Market] The reporter interviewed several cities in six provinces in Hunan, Hubei, Guizhou and Guizhou and found that the safety situation of drinking water in urban areas in China has been steadily improving and improving. However, in some areas, the infrastructure construction has lags behind and the city has “secondary water supply”. Problems such as outstanding problems still affect the safety of drinking water for urban residents, and there is no need to optimize and upgrade the entire chain of drinking water treatment standards, processes, monitoring, and the construction of “secondary water supply” and emergency response systems.

Water supply companies are the main body that guarantees the safety of drinking water for the public. When the reporter recently conducted investigations on many places, it was found that from large urban water utility companies to small township water plants, water prices and costs were more or less plagued by inversions, which in turn affected many water suppliers. The ability to develop. Industry insiders suggested that we should increase the cost of water supply, the water production process, and the openness of water testing, accelerate the establishment of a scientific adjustment of water prices and a cost-sharing mechanism to promote the healthy development of the water supply industry.

Water price inversion restricts the development of water supply companies The National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development issued relevant guidance in January 2014. Before the end of 2015, all city-based cities will implement the residential water pricing system in principle. With the promotion of stepped water prices, the prices of tap water have been raised. In spite of this, the reporter recently discovered in an interview with water companies in many provinces and cities in the eastern, central and western provinces that the phenomenon of inversion of prices and costs of tap water is still relatively common.

The person in charge of the surveyed water supply companies stated that the current water fees paid by some residents do not seem to be low, but the actual water prices charged by the water supply companies are not high, and most of them do not match the cost of water production.

Changsha Water Supply Co., Ltd. under the Changsha Water Group supplies water to approximately 1.5 million users in the 6 districts of Changsha. The chairman of the company, Jin Kaijun, introduced that the local water price for the first step is 2.68 yuan/party, and 0.75 yuan sewage treatment fee and 0.3 yuan garbage disposal are eliminated. Fee, water resource fee of 0.12 yuan, water fee charged by the company is 1.51 yuan/party. “In 2014, the direct cost of accounting for the price per unit of water was 1.96 yuan, and the loss was 0.4 yuan. Now, it is estimated that there will be a loss of 0.6 yuan per ton of water.”

The Chongqing Water Supply Company supplies water to about 6 million people in the main city of Chongqing. Due to the special nature of the mountainous terrain, multi-level pressurized stations are required to increase the cost of water supply. According to the person in charge of the company, the current price of Chongqing's main city is 3.5 yuan per square meter. The sewage treatment and other value-added tax are eliminated. The company charges 2.3 yuan per square meter of water, and the company's water treatment cost is 2.8 yuan per square meter.

Not only water companies in big cities, but also small and medium-sized water supply companies and township water plants in some prefecture-level cities also face losses in the water supply business. Wang Guangpeng, chief engineer of the Water Company in Liupanshui City, Guizhou Province, said that the main water source is high and the original water naturally flows into the water plant. The cost of water production is relatively low at 2.2 yuan/party, and the company charges 2.3 yuan/party. However, with the expansion of urban areas, a reservoir with an investment of more than 2 billion yuan will soon be put into use, requiring 300 meters of water to enter the water plant, and the cost of electricity will be very high. After the new reservoir is put into use, the current water price will be reduced.

In Dianjiang County of Chongqing City, most of the rural rural drinking water was protected through water integration reforms. The county's Gao'an Waterworks supplied a total of 85,000 people to the surrounding two towns. Due to the long pipe network and high maintenance costs, the difference between water price and cost is 0.65 yuan. Fang, depreciation, water supply losses of about 1 million yuan each year. Liao Caifan, who has been a director of the plant for 28 years, expressed his feelings that the inversion of the water price is the most important obstacle to the development of water supply companies.

The personage inside course of study introduces, the water supply serves as the public welfare industry, when the water price adjustment is not in place, the government should give the corresponding financial subsidy of the water supply enterprise. However, in reality, most local governments and the general public believe that water supply is a monopoly industry. Losses are caused by poor corporate management and high costs. Therefore, a normalized subsidy mechanism has not been formed.

Some water supply companies have undertaken the construction of urban water supply network infrastructure but have not received corresponding support. A management staff of a water company in the central city revealed that the old pipe network reconstruction should have a government subsidy of 40 million yuan each year, which has not been implemented for three consecutive years and can only be operated with debt. According to preliminary calculations, from 2009 to 2015, the financial investment in urban pipe network construction reached 1.2 billion yuan. During the same period, the group added more than 4 billion yuan of loans, and the loss last year was about 300 million yuan, which has increased year by year. The Chongqing Water Supply Company uses production water to subsidize the loss of domestic water, and as the water plant and pipe network are newly added, business operations are also faced with difficulties.

“The loss of water supply companies is not uncommon, but good can only be maintained.” A manager of the Changsha Water Group introduced that the investment in the drinking water project of Changsha Zhushuqiao Reservoir was approximately 3.5 billion yuan, which was almost entirely contributed by the enterprise. Changsha Water in 2015 The industry group lost about 400 million yuan.

At the same time, taking into account public opinion pressure caused by rising water prices, some local governments have been very cautious about raising the price of water even after seeing the difficulties of the water supply companies. Respondents introduced that Wuhan's latest water price adjustment was in 2013. It was only fine-tuned. It did not increase its price in the past 8 years. Price levels, staff wages, raw material prices, and electricity prices all rose. Changsha opened a water price adjustment hearing in August 2015. Yes, it will not be over.

The lack of ability of “hematopoietic” of the enterprise affects the improvement of the process due to water resources distribution, water environment pollution, regional geological conditions and other factors. The water quality of water sources in some areas is poor, and conventional treatment processes are difficult to meet the national drinking water standards, and additional processing facilities are required. Inadequate water prices and costs, insufficient financial subsidies, it is difficult for some water supply companies to achieve "micro-profit protection."

There is no big river in a certain area of ​​the western part of China, and there is a lack of water resources, mainly in reservoir-type water sources. Although the construction of water conservancy projects and the ecological conservation around the reservoirs have been intensified, due to agricultural non-point source pollution and regional geological impacts, the reservoirs contain high levels of organic matter, iron and manganese. According to a person in charge of the water supply company in the area, there is a large amount of pesticides and fertilizers in the farming area, the reservoir has no self-purification capability, and there are more organic matters in the water source area. It is difficult for conventional processes to effectively handle organic matter and heavy metals, and the water and organic matter and heavy metals are high. Chlorine may interact with organic matter to produce hazardous substances such as trichloromethane, and it is necessary to add an advanced treatment facility.

The person in charge said that in 2015 the company invested about 10 million yuan to add advanced treatment technology, which increased the cost of about 0.4 yuan per ton of water, and the cost of water production reached 3.4 yuan per square meter, but the local first-tier water price was 3.62 yuan per square meter. Enterprises charge water fee of 2.5 yuan/party. Due to the rapid development of urbanization, the company relies on households to install profits to subsidize water supply losses. “Once urbanization slows down, installation business shrinks, and business operations are in difficulty, it will inevitably affect the operation of advanced treatment facilities.”

Even river-type water sources with self-purification capability should be equipped with advanced treatment facilities if they are exposed to high pollution risks. Six out of the eight water plants of a central city water supply company use a river that the city relies on as the source of drinking water, and the water quality is basically three types of water. However, due to flooding and other factors, the indicators such as iron and ammonia rise. The water quality is lower than 3 types. At present, the company has two advanced water treatment plants, and four are upgrading. Two of these water plants require 650 million yuan in direct investment in upgrading and upgrading, not counting operating and personnel costs. The city needs to increase the cost of 0.1 yuan per ton of water. “Upgrading water quality has to be done, but doing it will increase the cost and the water price will be low. This is the biggest problem for the water supply industry,” said one company manager.

Respondents in the industry reminded that in the face of water price upside down, some small-scale water supply companies are not able to use conventional processes to treat raw water in order to save costs, let alone add advanced treatment facilities.

“As long as the treatment process and the pipe network upgrade, it is not difficult to raise the water quality and even reach the drinking water standard. The key is to increase the cost of who will bear it?” said a technician from the Chongqing Water Supply Company.

To achieve sustainable development of the industry, it is necessary to establish scientific water prices. The lack of infrastructure for water supply infrastructure, rapid urbanization, and public demand for water quality have created multiple pressures on tap water companies. The industry believes that to achieve sustainable development of the water supply industry, there is an urgent need to reverse the problem of water price and cost inversion.

Like resource products such as electricity and gas, the adjustment of water prices is difficult to balance between market pricing and people's livelihood needs. In the process of formulating a stepped water price, many cities have held hearings. However, due to the opacity of cost accounting, the public and the media questioned the “rising by borrowing ladder”.

The person in charge of the surveyed water supply company stated that the water fee accounted for a small proportion of the household's household expenditure. Even if the price per ton of water rose by 1 yuan, the average family would spend about 20-30 yuan more per month. However, it is crucial for the development of the water supply industry and the improvement of water quality. important. They suggested that in order to construct a scientific and dynamic water price adjustment mechanism, we must first increase our communication with the public. When governments and enterprises adjust water prices, they must disclose the cost accounting process and the book of water pricing on the one hand. On the other hand, water companies should be invited to institutionalize The people visited the water production process and disclosed water quality inspections.

At the same time, the resource allocation function of the water price of the stairs should be effectively realized. According to the guideline for water pricing, issued by the relevant ministries and commissions, the first ladder should cover 80% of the average monthly water consumption of residents. In the interview, many grass-roots cadres introduced that in order to implement on time, most places implement a three-tier water price ladder, the first step of water is much larger than the recommended value, the coverage is far more than 80% of the proportion, the step water price is in name only, can not play to enhance water-saving awareness and Price leverage. Respondents suggested changing the third-level water price to more levels of water prices, properly compressing water at all levels, and realizing the use of water resources for multiple purposes and for efficient use.

Again, a multi-party sharing mechanism for water supply costs was established. According to industry insiders, the current cause of doubts about the water quality of the public is mostly the pipeline network aging damage and secondary water supply links. As the main investors are unclear and their responsibilities are unclear, the government, enterprises, and residents lack the incentive to renew the pipeline network and transform the water meters. The municipal level of related costs is mostly borne by the water supply companies. They suggested that the government should effectively fulfill its responsibility for the construction of water supply infrastructure. The government should use "government subsidies as the main factor and self-raised by the water supply company as the supplement" for the supervisory network, and "mainly water supply enterprises and residents can take part in the transformation of branch management networks and household forms".

(Original title: Water Costs Upside Down Difficulties Some Water Supply Enterprises Discuss Cost Sharing Mechanisms)

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